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How the Early Church Understood the Bible

Primary Sources

Book or monograph Ambrose, Exposition of Psalm 118.
Book or monograph Augustine, On Christian Doctrine.
Book or monograph St Augustine: The Literal Meaning of GenesisJohn H. Taylor, translator, St Augustine, The Literal Meaning of Genesis, Johannes Quasten, Walter J. Burghardt & Thomas C. Lawler, eds. Ancient Christian Writers: The Works of the Fathers in Translation, No. 41. New York: Newman Press, 1983. ISBN: 0809103265. pp.296.. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph St Augustine: The Literal Meaning of GenesisJohn H. Taylor, translator, St Augustine, The Literal Meaning of Genesis, Johannes Quasten, Walter J. Burghardt & Thomas C. Lawler, eds. Ancient Christian Writers: The Works of the Fathers in Translation, No. 42. New York: Newman Press, 1983. ISBN: 0809103273. pp.360. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Gregory of Nyssa, Commentary on the Song of Songs.
Book or monograph Jerome, Commentary on Matthew.
Book or monograph Origen, On First Principles 4.

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Secondary Sources

Book or monograph Peter R. Ackroyd & Craig F. Evans, eds. The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975. Pbk. ISBN: 0521099730. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book James N.S. Alexander, "The Interpretation of Scripture in the Ante-Nicene Period," Interpretation 12 (1958): 272-80.
On-line Resource - website, article, monograph or book David E. Aune, "Early Christian Biblical Interpretation," The Evangelical Quarterly 41.2 (April-May 1969): 89-96.View in PDF format [Reproduced by permission of the current copyright holder]
Article in Journal or Book David L. Balás, "The Use and Interpretation of Paul in Irenaeus's Five Books's, Adversus Haereses," Second Century 9 (1992): 27-39.
On-line Resource C.P.Bammel, "The farewell discourse in patristic exegesis," Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 193-208.View in PDF format
Book or monograph C.P. Bammel, Traditions and Biblical Exegesis in Early Christian Writers. Variorum Collected Studies. London: Variorum, 1995. Hbk. ISBN: 0860784940. pp.320. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book C.P. Bammel, "Patristic Exegesis of Romans 5:7," Journal of Theological Studies 47.2 (1996): 532-542.
Article in Journal or Book James Barr, "Literality," Faith and Philosophy 6 (1984): 412-28.
Article in Journal or Book C.K. Barrett, "The Interpretation of the Old Testament in the New," P.R. Ackroyd & C.F. Evans, eds. The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. 1. From Beginnings to Jerome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970. Hbk. ISBN: 0521074185. pp.377-411.
Book or monograph Basser: Studies in ExegesisHerbert W. Basser, Studies in Exegesis: Christian Critiques of Jewish Law and Rabbinic Responses 70-300 CE. Leiden: Brill, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 0391041657. pp.162. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book A.J. Bellinzoni, "The Gospel of Matthew in the Second Century," Second Century 9 (1992): 197-258.
Article in Journal or Book C. Clifton Black, "Serving the Food of Full-Grown Adults. Augustine's Interpretation of Scripture and the Nurture of Christians," Interpretation 52.4 (Oct. 1998): 341-353.
Article in Journal or Book H.A. Blair, "Allegory, Typology and Archetypes," Studia Patristica XVII.1 (1982): 263-67.
Article in Journal or Book Willem den Boer, "Hermeneutic problems in early Christian literature," Vigiliae christianae 1.3 (July 1947): 150-167.
Gerald L. Bruns, Hermeneutics Ancient and Modern. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993. Hbk. ISBN: 0300054505. pp.328. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book B. Buby, "Research on the Biblical Approach and the Method of Exegesis Appearing in the Greek Homiletic Texts of the Late Fourth and Early Fifth Centuries," Marian Library Studies 135 (1982): 224-394.
Mark S. Burrows & Paul Rorem, eds. Biblical Hermeneutics in Historical Perspective: Studies in Honor of Karlfried Froehlich on His Sixtieth Birthday. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991. Hbk. ISBN: 0802836933. pp.388 {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book P.A. Chamberas, "The Transfiguration of Christ: A Study in the Patristic Exegesis of Scripture," St. Vladimirs Seminary Quarterly 14 (1970): 48-65.
On-line Resource - website, article, monograph or book Frederic Henry Chase [1853-1925], Chrysostom: A Study in the History of Biblical Interpretation. Deighton, Bell & Co., 1887. [This material is in the Public Domain]
Wai-Shing Chau, The Letter and the Spirit: A History of Interpretation from Origen to Luther. American University Studies. Series Vii, Theology and Religion, Vol 167. Peter Lang Publishing Inc., 1995. Hbk. ISBN: 0820423289. pp.250. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource - website, article, monograph or book Thomas Cornman, "The development of third-century hermeneutical views in relation to eschatological systems," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 30.3 (Sept. 1987): 279-287.View in PDF format
Article in Journal or Book Patricia Cox, "Origen and the Witch of Endor: Towards an Iconoclastic Typology," Anglican Theological Review 66 (1984): 137-147.
Article in Journal or Book Frederick W. Danker, "Biblical Exegesis: Christian Views," in Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol. 2: 142-152.
Dockery: Biblical Interpretation Then and NowDavid S. Dockery, Biblical Interpretation Then And Now. Contemporary Hermeneutics In The Light Of The Early Church. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992. ISBN: 0801030102. pp.248. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book David G. Dunbar, "Hippolytus of Rome and the Eschatological Exegesis of the Early Church," Westminster Theological Journal 45.2 (1983): 322-339.
Article in Journal or Book M.J. Edwards, "Gnostics, Greeks, and Origen: The Interpretation of Interpretation," Journal of Theological Studies n.s. 44.1 (1993): 70-89.
Craig A. Evans & James A. Sanders, eds., Early Christian Interpretation of the Scriptures of Israel: Investigations and Proposals. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement No. 148. Sheffield: Continuum International Publishing Group - Sheffield Academic Press, 1997. Hbk. ISBN: 1850756791. pp.500. {Amazon.com}
Evans: The Interpretation of Scripture in Early Judaism and ChristianityCraig A Evans, The Interpretation of Scripture in Early Judaism and Christianity: Studies in Language and Tradition. Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha Supplement Series, 33. Sheffield: Continuum International Publishing Group - Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. Hbk. ISBN: 1841270768. pp.415. {Amazon.com}
Michael A. Fahey, Cyprian and the Bible: A Study in Third Century Exegesis. Tübingen: Mohr, 1971. ISBN: 3161322223. pp.696. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph William R. Farmer & Denis Farkasfalvy, The Formation of the New Testament Canon: An Ecumenical Approach. New York; Paulist, 1984. Pbk. ISBN: 0809124955. pp.182. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Thomas Finan & V. Twomery, eds., Scriptural Interpretation in the Fathers. Portland: Four Courts Press Ltd., 1995. Hbk. ISBN: 1851821627. pp.370. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph E. Flesseman-Van Leer, Tradition and Scripture in the Early Church. Van Gorcum's theologische bibliotheek. Assen : Van Gorcum, 1954. pp.210.
Journal Article W.H.C. Frend, "The Old Testament in the Age of the Greek Apologists, A.D. 130-181," Scottish Journal of Theology 26 (1973): 129-
Book or monograph Froelich: Biblical interpretation in the Early ChurchKarl Froehlich, Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985. Pbk. ISBN: 0800614143. pp.136. {Amazon.com}
Journal Article Karlfried Froehlich, "'Take Up and Read'. Basics of Augustine's Biblical Interpretation," Interpretation 58.1 (Jan. 2004): 5-16.
Book or monograph Peter Gorday, The Place of Chapters 9-11 in the Argument of the Epistle to the Romans: a Study of the Romans Exegesis of Origen, John Chrysostom and Augustine. New York / Toronto: Edwin Mellen, 1983. Hbk. ISBN: 0889466025. pp. xvii + 403. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Robert M. Grant, The Letter and the Spirit. London: SPCK, 1957.
Book or monograph Grant: A Short History of the Interpretation of the BibleRobert M. Grant, A Short History of the Interpretation of the Bible, 2nd edn. London: XPRESS Reprints, 1996. Pbk. ISBN: 1859310435. pp.224. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
Journal Article W.M. Green, "Patristic Interpretation of the Bible," Restoration Quarterly 5 (1961): 230-35.
Book or monograph R.A. Greer, "The Captain of Our Salvation. A Study in the Patristic Exegesis of Hebrews," Beiträge zur Geschichte der biblischen Exegese 15. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1973. pp.371.
Greer: The Christian Bible And Its InterpretationRowan A. Greer, "The Christian Bible And Its Interpretation," Early Biblical Interpretation. Wayne A. Meeks, gen. ed. The Library of Early Christianity. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1986. ISBN: 0664250130. {Amazon.com}
Journal Article D.E. Groh, "Utterance and Exegesis: Biblical Interpretation in the Montanist Crisis," Dennis E Groh & Robert Jewett, eds., Living Text: Essays in Honour of Ernest W. Saunders. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1985. Pbk. ISBN: 0819145858. pp.272. {Amazon.com}
Donald A. Hagner, The Use of the Old and New Testaments in Clement of Rome. Novum Testamentum Supplement 34 . E.J. Brill, 1973. ISBN: 9004036369. pp.393. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Gordon J. Hamilton, "Augustine's Methods of Biblical Interpretation," Hugo A. Meynell, ed. Grace, Politics & Desire: Essays on Augustine. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1990. Pbk. ISBN: 0919813550. pp.103-119. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Hanson: Allegory and EventR.P.C. Hanson, Allegory and Event. A Study of the Sources and Significance of Origen's Interpretation of Scripture. Westminster John Knox Press, 2003. Pbk. ISBN: 066422444X. pp.400. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book R.P.C. Hanson, "The Church and Tradition in the Pre-Nicene Fathers," Scottish Journal of Theology 12 (1959): 21-
Article in Journal or Book R.P.C. Hanson, "Biblical Exegesis in the Early Church," P.R. Ackroyd & C.F. Evans, eds. The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. 1. From Beginnings to Jerome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970. Hbk. ISBN: 0521074185. pp.412-453. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book C. Hay, "Antiochene Exegesis and Christology," Australian Biblical Review 12 (1964): 10-23.
Article in Journal or Book Ronald E. Heine, "Gregory of Nyssa's Apology for Allegory," Vigiliae Christianae (1984).
Article in Journal or Book Ronald E. Heine, "Stoic Logic as handmaid to Exegesis and Theology in Origen's Commentary on the Gospel of John," Journal of Theological Studies, n.s. 44 (1993): 90-117.
Article in Journal or Book William Horbury, "Old Testament Interpretation in the Writings of the Church Fathers," Martin Jan Mulder, ed. Mikra, Text, Translation, Reading and Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity. Assen / Philadelphia: Van Gorcum / Fortress, 1988. Hbk. ISBN: 0800606043. pp.727-787. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book P. Jackson, "Cyril of Jerusalem's Use of Scripture in Exegesis," Theological Studies 52 (1991): 431-503.
Article in Journal or Book John F. Jansen, "Tertullian and the New Testament," Second Century 2 (1982): 191-207.
On-line Resource - website, article, monograph or book Keith E. Johnson, "Augustine's 'Trinitarian' Reading of John 5: A Model for the Theological Interpretation of Scripture?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 52.4 (Dec. 2009): 799-810.View in PDF format
Article in Journal or Book M.F. Johnson, "Another Look at the Plurality of the Literal Sense," Medieval Philosophy and Theology 2 (1992): 117-41.
Book or monograph Donald H Juel, Messianic Exegesis: Christological Interpretations of the Old Testament in Early Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1987. Hbk. ISBN: 0800608402. pp.208. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Charles Kannengiesser, "The Bible as Read in the Early Church: Patristic Exegesis and its Presuppositions," Concilium. Madrid. (1991): 29-36.
Article in Journal or Book Charles Kannengiesser, The Bible in Ancient Christianity. Leiden: Brill, 2004. Hbk. ISBN: 9004098151. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Graham Keith, "Can Anything Good Come out of Allegory? The Cases of Origen and Augustine," Evangelical Quarterly 70.1 (1998): 23-49.
Article in Journal or Book A. Kerrigan, "The Objects of the Literal and Spiritual Senses of the NT According to Cyril of Alexandria," Studia Patristica 1 (1957): 354-71.
Article in Journal or Book V. Kesich, "The Antiochenes and the Temptation Story," Studia Patristica 7 (1966): 496-502.
Book or monograph James L. Kugel & Rowan A. Greer, Early Biblical Interpretation. Library of Early Christianity 3. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1986. Hbk. ISBN: 0664219071. pp.214. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph G.W.H. Lampe & K.J. Woollcombe, Essays on Typology. London: SCM Press, 1957. pp.80.
Article in Journal or Book Howard J. Loewen, "The Use of Scripture in Augustine's Theology," Scottish Journal of Theology 34 (1981): 201-
Article in Journal or Book Thomas R. McKibbens, "The Exegesis of John Chrysostom: Homilies on the Gospels," Expository Times 93.9 (1982): 264-270.
Book or monograph Kathleen E. McVey, "The Use of Stoic Cosmogony in Theophilus of Antioch's Hexaemeron," Mark S. Burrows & Paul Rorem, eds. Biblical Hermeneutics in Historical Perspective: Studies in Honor of Karlfried Froehlich on His Sixtieth Birthday. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991. Hbk. SBN: 0802836933. pp.32-38. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Andrew Michael Manis, "Melito of Sardis: Hermeneutic and Context," Greek Orthodox Theological Review 32.4 (1987): 387-401.
Book or monograph Edouard Massaux, The Influence of the Gospel of Saint Matthew on Christian Literature Before Saint Irenaeus. New Gospel Studies. Mercer University Press, 1994. Hbk. ISBN: 0865543771. pp.xxvi + 172. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Herbert T. Mayer, "Clement of Rome and His Use of Scripture," Concordia Theological Monthly 42.8 (1971): 536-540.
Book or monograph James J. Megivern, Bible Interpretation. Wilmington, NC: McGrath, 1978. Pbk. ISBN: 0843407212. pp. xxxv + 466. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book John J. O'Keefe, "A Letter that Killeth: Toward a Reassessment of Antiochene Exegesis, or Diodore, Theodore and Theodoret on the Psalms," Journal of Early Christian Studies 8.1 (2000): 83-104.
Article in Journal or Book Bruce M. Metzger, "Patristic Evidence and the Textual Criticism of the New Testament," New Testament Studies 18 (1972): 379-400.
Article in Journal or Book Roland E. Murphy, "Patristic and Medieval Exegesis - Help or Hindrance?" Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (October 1981): 505-16.
Article in Journal or Book B. Nassif, "The 'Spiritual Exegesis' of Scripture. The School of Antioch Revisited," Australian Theological Review 75 (1993): 437-70.
Book or monograph T.P. O'Malley, Tertullian and the Bible: Language - Imagery - Exegesis. Latinitas Christianorum Primaeva. Utrecht: Dekker & Van De Vegt N.V. Nijmegen, 1967.
Article in Journal or Book I. de la Potterie, "Reading holy Scripture in the spirit: Is the patristic way of reading the Bible still possible today?" Communio (US) 13 (1986): 308-25.
On-line Resource - website, article, monograph or book Timothy J. Ralston, "'Back to the Future': Classical Categories of Exegesis, Application and Authority for Preaching and Spiritual Formation," Journal of the Evangelical Homiletics Society 3.2 (2003): 33-51.View in PDF format [Reproduced by permission of the copyright holder] Read more about the auther here.
Book or monograph G.Q. Reijners, The Terminology of the Holy Cross in Early Christian Literature, as Based Upon Old Testament Typology. Graecitas Christianorum Primaeva. Nijmegen-Utrecht: Dekker & van de Vegt, 1965. Pbk. ISBN: 902559655X. pp. xxiv + 230. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book P.J. Ryan, "The Greek Tradition of Allegorization and Its Influence on the Early Christian Writers," Predentia 21 (1989): 25-46.
Article in Journal or Book C.J. Scalise, "Allegorical flights of Fancy; the Problems of Origen's Exegesis," Greek Orthodox Theological Review 32 (1987): 69-88.
Article in Journal or Book S. Scheiders, "The Literal Sense of Scripture," Theological Studies 39 (1978): 719-36.
Book or monograph Simonetti: Biblical Interpretation in the Early ChurchManlio Simonetti, Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church: An Historical Introduction of Patristic Exegesis. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1994. Hbk. ISBN: 0567095576. pp.162. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Sidney G. Sowers, The Hermeneutics of Philo and Hebrews: a Companion of the Interpretation of the Old Testament in Philo Judaeus and the Epistle to the Hebrews. Basel Studies of Theology 1. Richmond, VA: John Knox Press, 1965. pp.154.
Article in Journal or Book D.C. Steinmetz, "The Superiority of Pre-Critical Exegesis," Theology Today. Princeton, NJ. 37 (1980): 27-38.
Article in Journal or Book C. Stuhlmoller, "The Influence of Old Tradition upon Exegesis and the Senses of Scripture," Catholic Biblical Quarterly 20 (1958): 299-326.
On-line Resource - website, article, monograph or book J. Tate, "The Beginnings of Greek Allegory," Classical Review 41 (1927): 214-215.View in PDF format
On-line Resource - website, article, monograph or book J. Tate, "On the History of Allegorism," Classical Quarterly 28 (1934): 105-14.View in PDF format
Article in Journal or Book W. Telfer, "The Fourth-Century Greek Fathers as Exegetes," Harvard Theological Review 50 (1957): 91-105.
Article in Journal or Book J.M. Terah, "The Labourers in the Vineyard: The Exegesis of Matthew 20,1-7 in the Early Church," Vigiliae Christianae 46 (1992): 356-380.
Article in Journal or Book J.M. Tevel, "The Labourers in the Vineyard: The Exegesis of Matthew 20,1-7 in the Early Church," Vigiliae Christianae 46.4 (1992): 356-380.
Book or monograph Thiselton: New Horizons in HermeneuticsAnthony C. Thiselton, New Horizons in Hermeneutics: The Theory and Practice of Transforming Biblical Reading. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997. Pbk. ISBN: 0310217628. pp. xii + 703. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Lauri Thuren, "John Chrysostom as a Rhetorical Critic: The Hermeneutics of an Early Father," Biblical Interpretation 9.2 (2001): 180-218.
Article in Journal or Book Karen Jo Torjesen, "'Body,' 'Soul,' and 'Spirit' in Origen's Theory of Exegesis," Anglican Theological Review 67 (1985): 17-30.
Book or monograph Karen Jo Torjesen, Hermeneutical Procedure and Theological Method in Origen's Exegesis. Berlin, New York: Walter De Gruyter, 1986.
Book or monograph Joseph Trigg, Biblical Interpretation. Message of the Fathers of the Church, Vol. 9. Wilmington: Michael Glazier Books, 1994. Pbk. ISBN: 0814653391. pp.301. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Joseph C. Schnaubelt & Frederick Van Fleteren, Augustine: Biblical Exegete. Augustinian Historical Institute, Series 5. New York: Peter Lang Pubishers Inc., 2001. Hbk. ISBN: 0820422924. pp.xvii + 397. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Geza Vermes, "Bible and Midrash: Early Old Testament Exegesis," P.R. Ackroyd & C.F. Evans, eds. The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. 1. From Beginnings to Jerome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970. Hbk. ISBN: 0521074185. pp.199-231. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Burton L. Visotxky, "Jots and Titles: On Scriptural Interpretation in Rabbinic and Patristic Literatures," Prooftexts 8 (1988): 257-269.
Book or monograph D.S. Wallace-Hadrill, Christian Antioch: A Study of Early Christian Thought in the East. Cambridge: Cambirdge University Press, 1982. ISBN: 0521234255. pp. viii + 218. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book J.H. Waszink, "Tertullian's Principles and Method sof Exegesis," W.R. Schoedel & R.L. Wilken, eds. Early Christian Literature and the Christian Intellectual Tradition: In Honorem Robert M.Grant. Paris: Beauchesne, 1979. pp.17-31.
Article in Journal or Book David Weaver, "From Paul to Augustine: Romans 5:12 in Early Christian Exegesis," St. Vladimir's Theological Quartlerly 27 (1983): 187-206.
On-line Resource - website, article, monograph or book William C. Weinrich, "Patristic Exegesis as Ecclesial and Sacramental," Concordia Theological Quarterly 60.1 (January 2000): 39-60. View in PDF format
Book or monograph Jon Whitman, Allegory: The Dynamics of an Ancient and Medieval Technique. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987. Hbk. ISBN: 0198112009. pp.296. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Maurice Wiles, The Spiritual Gospel: The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel in the Early Church. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1960. Hbk. ISBN: 0521068029. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Robert L. Wilken, "In novissmis diebus: Biblical Promises, Jewish Hopes and Early Christian Exegesis," Journal of Early Christian Studies 1 (1993): 1-19.
Article in Journal or Book Robert Lewis Wilken, "St. Cyril of Alexandria: Biblical Expositor," Coptic Church Review 19.1-2 (1998): 30-41.
Article in Journal or Book J.D. Wilkinson, "A Defense of Origenist Allegory," Texte und Untersuchungen 81 (1962): 264-68.
Article in Journal or Book D.H. Williams, "The Search for Sola Scriptura in the Early Church," Interpretation 52.4 (Oct. 1998): 354-367..
On-line Resource - website, article, monograph or book Orval Wintermute, "A Study of Gnostic Exegesis of the Old Testament," James M. Efird, editor, The Use of the Old Testament in the New and Other Essays: Studies in Honor of William Franklin Stinespring. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1972. ISBN: 0822302888. pp.241-270.View in PDF format
Book or monograph James D. Wood, The Interpretation of the Bible: A Historical Introduction. Studies in Theology. London: Duckworth, 1958. Hbk. ISBN: 0715601873. pp.184. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Francis Young, "Exegetical Method and Biblical Proof - the Bible in Doctrinal Debate," Studia Patristica 19 (1989): 297-304.
Article in Journal or Book The Making of OrthodoxyFrancis Young, "The Rhetorical Schools and Their Influence on Patristic Exegesis," Rowan Williams, ed. The Making of Orthodoxy: Essays in Honor of Henry Chadwick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 0521892511. pp.182-199. {Amazon.com}

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