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Athanasius of Alexandria
(296-298 – 2 May 373)



Synopsis

Athanasius will always be remembered for his role in the theological controversies of the fourth century sparked by the teachings of Arius. Although the details of this debate are beyond the scope of this present study their effect on the doctrine of the church and on its relationship with the emperors was far reaching. Athanasius was taken into the household of Alexander, the bishop of Alexandria, who apparently recognised his potential from an early age.[1] His education appears to have concentrated on the scriptures and their exegesis rather than the Greek classics.[2] Athanasius was ordained as a deacon and assisted his protégé at the Council of Nicaea. Following Alexander’s death Athanasius succeeded him as bishop of Alexandria and continued his struggle against the Arians.

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References

[1] Socrates, History 1.15; Sozomenus, History, 2.17 (NPNF, 2nd series, Vol. 2, 20, 269-270).

[2] Timothy D. Barnes, Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire. (Cambridge MA / London: Harvard University Press, 1993), 11.

Primary Sources

On-line Resource Athanasius (Christian Classic Ethereal Library)
Book or monograph Athanasius' Life of AntonySt. Athanasius, "The Life of Antony," trans. Robert T. Meyer, Ancient Christian Writers, Vol. 10. New York: Newman Press, 1950. Hbk. ISBN: 0809102501.
Book or monograph Athanasius: On The IncarnationSt. Athanasius, On the Incarnation: The Treatise De Incarnatione Verbi Dei. St Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1975. Pbk. ISBN: 0913836400.
On-line Resource St. Athanasius on the Incarnation, Archibald RobertsonSt. Athanasius on the Incarnation, Archibald Robertson, translator, 3rd edn. London: David Nutt, 1911. Hbk. pp.108. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Book or monograph St. Athanasius, The Monastic Letters of St Athanasius the Great, Leslie Barnard (Translator). Fairacres Publications, 1994. Pbk. ISBN: 0728301385.
Book or monograph Gregg: AthanasiusR.C. Gregg, Athanasius: The Life of Antony and the Letter to Marcellinus. R.J. Payne, et al, eds. Classics of Western Spirituality. New York: Paulist, 1980. Pbk. ISBN: 0809122952.
Book or monograph Gregory of Nazianzus, Orations, 21.
Book or monograph Jerome, Lives of Illustrius Men, 87.

Secondary Sources

Article in Journal or Book Khaled Anatolios, "The Soteriological Significance of Christ’s Humanity in St Athanasius," St Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly 40.4 (1996): 265-286.
Book or monograph Anatolius: Athanasios: The Structure of His ThoughtKhaled Anatolios, Athanasius: The Structure of His Thought. London: London: Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd., 1998. Hbk. ISBN: 0415186374. pp.272.
Article in Journal or Book Khaled Anatolios, "The Witness of Athanasius at the (Hoped-for) Nicene Council of 2025," Pro Ecclesia 25. 2 (Spr. 2016): 220-236.
Book or monograph Duane W. H Arnold, The Early Episcopal Career of Athanasius of Alexandria. University of Notre Dame Press, 1991. Hbk. ISBN: 0268009252. pp.235.
Article in Journal or Book Duane W.H. Arnold, "Excursus on the Athanasian Use of Sources in De Decretis," Patristic and Byzantine Review 11.1-3 (1992): 33-51.
Article in Journal or Book Mark Baddeley, "An Exploration of Athanasius' Strategies for Reading Genesis 1-3," Phronema 30.1 (2015): 115-136.
Article in Journal or Book Mario Baghos, "Apology for Athanasius: The Traditional Portrait of the Saint According to Rufinus and the Byzantine Historians," Phronema 28.2 (2013): 55–88.
Article in Journal or Book L W Barnard, "Some Liturgical Elements in Athanasius' Festal Epistles," Studia Patristica 13 (1975): 337-42.
Book or monograph L W Barnard, Studies in Athanasius' "Apologia Secunda". Peter Lang, 1992. Pbk. ISBN: 3261045736.
Book or monograph Athanasius & ConstantiusTimothy D. Barnes, Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire. Cambridge MA / London: Harvard University Press, 2001. ISBN: 067400549X. pp.364.
Article in Journal or Book Abraham van de Beek, "The Relevance of Athanasius in Dogmatics," Church History and Religious Culture 90.2-3 (2010): 287-309.
Article in Journal or Book Robert W. Bertram, "Don't Confuse Athanasius - or God," Currents in Theology and Mission 14.3 (June 1987): 200-203.
Article in Journal or Book Margaret M. Beirne, "St Athanasius and the Scriptures, Exemplified in His Letter to Marcellinus," Phronema 28.2 (2013): 89-106.
Article in Journal or Book Wolfgang Bienert, "The Significance of Athanasius of Alexandria For Nicene Orthodoxy," Irish Theological Quarterly 48.3/4 (1981): 181-195.
Article in Journal or Book D. Brakke, "Canon Formation and Social Conflict in ivth-cent. Egypt, Athanasius of Alexandria's Thirty-ninth Festal Letter," Harvard Theological Review 87 (1994): 395-419.
Book or monograph Brakke: Athanasius and AsceticismDavid Brakke, Athanasius and Asceticism. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. Pbk. ISBN: 0801860555. pp.376.
Article in Journal or Book David Brakke, "A New Fragment of Athanasius’s Thirty-Ninth Festal Letter: Heresy, Apocrypha, and the Canon," Harvard Theological Review 103.1 (Jan. 2010): 47–66.
Article in Journal or Book B.R. Brennan, "Dating Athanasius' Vita Antonii," Vigiliae Christianae 30.1 (March 1976): 52-54.
Article in Journal or Book Jill S. Burnett, "Congregational Song and Doctrinal Formation: The Role of Hymnody in the Arian/Nicene Controversy," Liturgical Ministry 10.2 (2001): 83-92.
On-line Resource Andrew Ewbank Burn [1864-1927], The Athanasian Creed. Oxford Church Text Books. London: Rivingtons, 1918. Hbk. pp.114. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Article in Journal or Book V. Burrus, "The Heretical Woman as Symbol in (bishop) Alexander, Athanasius, Epiphanius, and Jerome," Harvard Theological Review 84 (1991): 229-48.
Article in Journal or Book T.C. Campbell, "The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit in the Theology of Athanasius," Scottish Journal of Theology 27 (1974): 408-40.
On-line Resource Robert A. Case, "Will the real Athanasius please stand up," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 19.4 (Fall 1976): 283-295. View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book Robert Pierce Casey, "The Athens Text of Athanasius, Contra Gentes and De Incarnatione," Harvard Theological Review 23.1 (Jan. 1930): 51-89.
Article in Journal or Book F. Stuart Clarke, "Lost and Found: Athanasius' Doctrine of Predesitination," Scottish Journal of Theology 29 (1976): 435-
On-line Resource St. Athanasius (Cornelius Clifford)
Article in Journal or Book Mary Douglas, "God and Humanity Brought Together: The Incarnation as Gospel," Evangelical Review of Theology 45.1 (Feb. 2021): 60-68.
Article in Journal or Book Denis Edwards, "Athanasius' Letters to Serapion: Resource for a Twenty-First Century Theology of God the Trinity," Phronema 29.2 (2014): 41-64.
Article in Journal or Book S. Elm, "Athanasius of Alexandria's Letter to the Virgins. Who was its intended audience?" Augustinianum 33 (1993): 171-83.
On-line Resource Athanasius, St, Bishop of Alexandria (Encyclopaedia Britannica)
Article in Journal or Book James D. Ernest, "Athanasius of Alexandria: The Scope of Scripture in Polemical and Pastoral Context," Vigiliae Christianae 47.4 (1993): 341-362.
Book or monograph Ernest: The Bible in Ancient Christianity, the Bible in Athanasius of AlexandriaJames D. Ernest, The Bible in Ancient Christianity, the Bible in Athanasius of Alexandria. Bible in Ancient Christianity. Leiden: Brill, 2004. Hbk. ISBN: 0391041762. pp.486.
Article in Journal or Book G. Florovsky, "The Concept of Creation in Athanasius," Studia Patristica 6 (1962): 36-57.
On-line Resource Adrian Fortescue [1874-1923], The Greek FathersAdrian Fortescue [1874-1923], The Greek Fathers. London: The Catholic Truth Society, 1908. Hbk. pp.255. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Article in Journal or Book Aza Goudriaan, "Athanasius in Reformed Protestantism: Some Aspects of Reception History (1527-1607)," Church History and Religious Culture 90. 2–3 (2010): 257-276.
Book or monograph Rudolph Graber, Athanasius and the Church of Our Time. On the 1600th Anniversary of His Death. Van Duren Contract Publications, 1974. Pbk. ISBN: 0901072133. pp.80.
Article in Journal or Book R.A. Greer, "The Captain of Our Salvation. A Study in the Patristic Exegesis of Hebrews," Beiträge zur Geschichte der biblischen Exegese 15. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1973. pp.371.
Book or monograph Grillmeier: Christ in Christian TraditionAloys Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition: From the Apostolic Age to Chalcedon (451), Vol. 1. Atlanta: John Knox, 1975. Pbk. ISBN: 066422301X. pp.308-328.
Article in Journal or Book Frank Hudson Hallock,"The Canons of Athanasius," Anglican Theological Review 9.4 (April 1927): 378-386.
Article in Journal or Book Frank Hudson Hallock, "The Canons of Athanasius," Anglican Theological Review 9.4 (April 1927): 378-386.
Article in Journal or Book Andrew S. Hamilton, "Narrative in the Theology of St. Athanasius," Colloquium 10.1 (Oct. 1977): 6-13.
Article in Journal or Book M.B. Hanspicker, "Athanasius on Scripture and Tradition," Andover Newton Quarterly 3 (1972-1973): 13-29.
Book or monograph Hanson: The Search for the Christian Doctrine of GodR.P.C. Hanson, The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy 318-381. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1988. ISBN: 0567094855. pp.954.
On-line Resource Trevor A. Hart, "The Two Soteriological Traditions of Alexandria," The Evangelical Quarterly 61.3 (1989): 239-259.View in PDF format pdf [Clement and Athanasius]
Article in Journal or Book Michael A.G. Haykin, "'The Spirit of God': The Exegesis of 1 Cor. 2:10-12 by Origen and Athanasius," Scottish Journal of Theology 35 (1982): 513-28.
Article in Journal or Book Michael A.G. Haykin, "'A Sense of Awe in the Presence of the Ineffable': 1 Cor 2:11-12 in the Pneumatomachian Controversy of the Fourth Century," Scottish Journal of Theology 41 (1988): 341-57.
Book or monograph Michael A.G. Haykin, The Spirit of God: Exegesis of 1 and 2 Corinthians in the Pneumatomachian Controversy of the Fourth Century. Vigiliae Christianae Supplements Series 27. Leiden: Brill, 1993. Hbk. ISBN: 9004099476. pp.350.
Article in Journal or Book J. Angus B. Holland," Athanasius Versus Arius: What Now?" Reformed Theological Review 28.1 (1969): 16-28.
Article in Journal or Book J. Angus B. Holland, "Athanasius and Arius II: Why the Impulse to Reduce?" Reformed Theological Review 30.2 (1971): 33-47.
Article in Journal or Book Charles Kannengeiser, "Athanasius of Alexandria and the Foundation of Traditional Christology," Theological Studies 34.1 (March 1973): 103-113.
Article in Journal or Book Charles Kannengeiser, "Athanasius of Alexandria and the Holy Spirit Between Nicea and Constantinople 1," Irish Theological Quarterly 48 (1981): 166-80.
Article in Journal or Book Charles Kannengeiser, "Athanasius of Alexandria: Three Orations Against the Arians: A Reappraisal," Studia Patristica, Vol. 18. (1982): 981-995.
Article in Journal or Book Charles Kannengeiser, "The Athanasian Decade 1974-84: A Bibliographic Report," Theological Studies 46.3 (Sept. 1985): 524-541.
Book or monograph Charles Kannengeiser, Arius and Athanasius: Two Alexandrian Theologians. London: Variorum, 1991. Hbk. ISBN: 0860783146. pp. xiv + 330.
Article in Journal or Book Charles Kannengiesser, "The Dating of Athanasius’ Double Apology and Three Treatises against the Arians," Zeitschrift Für Antikes Christentum 10.1 (2007): 19–33.
Article in Journal or Book Philip Kariatlis, "Soteriological Insights in St Athanasius' On the Incarnation," Phronema 28.2 (2013): 21-34.
Article in Journal or Book Paul R. Kolbet, "Athanasius, the Psalms, and the Reformation of the Self," Harvard Theological Review 99.1 (Jan. 2006): 85-101.
Article in Journal or Book Alan L. Kolp, "Partakers of the Divine Nature: The Use of 2 Peter 1:4 by Athanasius." Studia Patristica 17 (1982): 1018-1023.
Article in Journal or Book Peter L'Huillier,"Ecclesiology in the Canons of the First Nicene Council," St. Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 27.2 (1983): 119-131.
On-line Resource William Lefroy [1836-1909], ed., Church Leaders in Primitive TimesWilliam Ince [1825-1910], "The Life and Times of Athanasius," William Lefroy [1836-1909], ed., Church Leaders in Primitive Times. Lectures on Their Words and Works. Delivered in Norwich Cathedral by Eminent Anglican Devines, 2nd edn. London: Chas. J. Thynne, 1909. Hbk. pp.342-373. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Article in Journal or Book Samuel Laeuchli, "The Case of Athanasius Against Arius," Concordia Theological Monthly 30.6 (June 1959): 403-420.
Article in Journal or Book Kirsopp Lake, "The Text of the De Incarnatione of Athanasius," Harvard Theological Review 19.3 (July 1926): 259-270.
Article in Journal or Book Kirsopp Lake & Robert Pierce Casey,"The Text of the De Virginitate of Athanasius," Harvard Theological Review 19.2 (April 1926): 173-190.
Article in Journal or Book J.T. Lienhard, "On 'Discernment of Spirits' in the Early Church (1 Cor 12:10 for Chrysostom, Origen, Athanasius; Cassian," Theological Studies 41 (1980): 505-29.
Article in Journal or Book Andrew Louth, "Reason and Revelation in St. Athanasius," Scottish Journal of Theology 23 (1970): 385-
Article in Journal or Book Jerry D. McCoy, "Philosophical Influences on the Doctrine of the Incarnation in Athanasius and Cyril of Alexandria," Encounter 38.4 (Autumn 1977): 362-391.
Article in Journal or Book Louis Markos, "An Evening with Athanasius: Meditations on the Incarnation," Theology Today 62.2 (July 2005): 240-244.
Article in Journal or Book R.P. Martin, "(Ps 42: Athanasius 'most of scripture speaks to us, while the Psalms speak for us') Depression, a case-study," Expository Times 95 (1983): 23-25.
Book or monograph F.P. Meijering, Orthodoxy and Platonism in Athanasius: Synthesis or Antithesis. Leiden: Brill, 1974. pp. iii + 201.
Article in Journal or Book E.P. Meijering, "Athanasius on the Father as the Origin of the Son," Nederlands Archief Voor Kerkgeschiedenis 55.1 (1975): 1–14.
Article in Journal or Book E.P. Meijering, "Athanasius on God as Creator and Recreator," Church History and Religious Culture 90.2-3 (2010): 175-197.
Article in Journal or Book Andrew Mellas, "The Eremitic Citizen as An-Chora-Ite in St Athanasius' Life of St Antony," Phronema 28.1 (2013): 53-72.
Article in Journal or Book John R. Meyer, "Athanasius' Use of Paul in his Doctrine of Salvation," Vigiliae Christianae 52.2 (1998): 146-171.
Article in Journal or Book Jonathan Morgan, "The Soul’s Forgetfulness of God in Athanasius' Doctrine of the Fall," St Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 60.4 (2016): 473-488.
Article in Journal or Book Jonathan Morgan, "Soteriological Coherence in Athanasius’s Contra Gentes-De Incarnatione," The Evangelical Quarterly 88.2 (April 2016): 99-110.
Book or monograph H. Nordberg, On the Bible Text of St. Athanasius. Philologica Fennica NS 3 1962.
Article in Journal or Book H. Nordberg, "On the Bible Text of St. Athanasius (LXX + NT)," Arctos 3 (1962): 119-41.
Article in Journal or Book Stephen M. Reynolds, "Calvin's View of the Athanasian and Nicene Creeds," Westminster Theological Journal 23.1 (1961): 33-37.
Book or monograph Jaroslav Jan Pelikan, The Light of the World: a Basic Image in Early Christian Thought. New York: Harper, 1962. pp.128.
Article in Journal or Book A. Pettersen, "Christ's Death - A Liturgical Event for Athanasius of Alexandria?" Downside Review 102 (1984): 22-31.
Article in Journal or Book Alvyn Pettersen, "(Mt 26:39) Did Athanasius Deny Christ's Fear?" Scottish Journal of Theology 39 (1986): 327-40.
Article in Journal or Book Alvyn Pettersen, "The Courage of Christ in the Theology of Athanasius," Scottish Journal of Theology 40 (1987): 363-77.
Article in Journal or Book Dietrich Ritschl, "Athanasius, Source of New Questions," Journal of Ecumenical Studies 1.2 (Spr. 1964): 319-322.
Article in Journal or Book Grahame Rosolen, "The Incarnational Christology of Athanasius," Phronema 35.2 (2020): 85-95.
Book or monograph C.R.B. Shapland, The Letters of Saint Athanasius Concerning the Holy Spirit. London, 1951.
Article in Journal or Book Kelley McCarthy Spoerl, "Athanasius and the Anti-Marcellan Controversy," Zeitschrift Für Antikes Christentum 10.1 (2007): 34-55.
On-line Resource Arthur Penrhyn Stanley [1815-1881], Lectures on the History of the Eastern ChurchArthur Penrhyn Stanley [1815-1881], Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church with an Introduction on the Study of Ecclesiastical History, 5th edn. London: John Murray, 1884. Hbk. pp.422. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Article in Journal or Book Christopher Stead, "St Athanasius on the Psalms," Vigiliae Christianae 39.1 (March 1985): 65-78.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher Stead, "Rhetorical Method in Athanasius," Vigiliae Christianae 30 (1976): 121-137.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher tead, "The Thalia of Arius and the Testimony of Athanasius," Journal of Theological Studies 29 (1978): 20-52.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher Stead, "The Scriptures and the Soul of Christ in Athanasius," Vigiliae Christianae 36 (1982): 233-50.
Article in Journal or Book Hikaru Tanaka, "Athanasius as Interpreter of the Psalms: His Letter to Marcellinus," Pro Ecclesia 21,4 (Fall 2012): 422-448.
Article in Journal or Book Thomas F Torrance, "The Doctrine of the Holy Trinity According to St Athanasius," Anglican Theological Review 71.4 (Fall 1989): 395-405.
Article in Journal or Book Theology in ReconciliationT.F. Torrance, "Athanasius: A Study in the Foundations of Classical Theology," in Theology in Reconciliation. London, 1975. Reprinted: Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 1996. Pbk. ISBN: 1579100236.
Article in Journal or Book T.P. Torrance, "The Hermeneutics of St. Athanasius. Introduction, Theology, Background," Ekklesiastikos Pharos 52/1.2.3 (1970): 446-68, 89-106, 237-49.
Article in Journal or Book T. Vivian, "'Everything Made by God is Good.' A Letter Concerning Sexuality from Saint Athanasius to the Monk Amoun," Église et Théologie 24 (1993): 75-108.
Article in Journal or Book William C. Weinrich "God Did Not Create Death: Athanasius on the Atonement," Concordia Theological Quarterly 72.4 (Oct. 2008): 291-304.
Article in Journal or Book Jonathan Wells, "The Argument to Design in Athanasius and Maximus," Patristic and Byzantine Review 8.1 (1989): 45-54.
Article in Journal or Book Peter Widdicombe, "Athanasius and the Making of the Doctrine of the Trinity," Pro Ecclesia 6.4 (Fall 1997): 456-478.
Article in Journal or Book Arwin van Wilgenburg, "The Reception of Athanasius within Contemporary Roman Catholic Theology," Church History and Religious Culture 90.2–3 (2010): 311-337.
Article in Journal or Book J.C.M van Winden, "On the Date of Athanasius' Apologetical Treatises," Vigiliae Christianae 294 (Dec. 1975): 291-295.
Book or monograph Frances M Young, From Nicaea to Chalcedon: A Guide to the Literature and Its Background. London: SCM Press, 1983. pp.65-83.

Biographies

Article in Journal or Book W. Bright, "St. Athanasius of Alexandria," W. Smith & H. Wace, editors, Dictionary of Christian Biography, Vol. 1. London: John Murray, 1877. pp.179-203.
On-line Resource Robert Wheler Bush [1820-1908], St. Athanasius: His Life and Times. The Fathers for English ReadersRobert Wheler Bush [1820-1908], St. Athanasius: His Life and Times. The Fathers for English Readers. London: SPCK, 1888. Hbk. pp.252. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
On-line Resource Frederic William Farrar [1831-1903], Lives of the Fathers. Sketches of Church History in Biography, 2 VolsFrederic William Farrar [1831-1903], Lives of the Fathers. Sketches of Church History in Biography, 2 Vols. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1907. Hbk. pp.781+737. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Book or monograph Forbes: St. AthanasiusF. A. Forbes, St. Athanasius. Tan Books & Publishers Inc., 1999. Pbk. ISBN: 0895556235. pp.98.
Book or monograph Pettersen: AthanasiusAlvyn Pettersen, Athanasius. Morehouse Publishing, 1996. Pbk. ISBN: 0819216550. pp.224.
On-line Resource Henry Robert Reynolds [1825-1896], Athanasius. His Life and Life-WorkHenry Robert Reynolds [1825-1896], Athanasius. His Life and Life-Work. The Church History Series V. London: The Religious Tract Society, 1889. Hbk. pp.192. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]

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